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IN PROGRESS, this page surely not finished, be good to the World and help improving this page if you can!


The goal of this page is to clarify about which version of each piece of software has to be compiled, where to find that software, patches needed to make it compile on Linux 64Bit. This includes compiling all paparazzi-dev, paparazzi-arm7 and paparazzi-bin software on a 64Bit machine, running an Ubuntu Lucid Lynx or later Linux distribution or maybe even OSX. The Text below has it's origins from and the OpenUAS internal Wiki.

Sometimes you see 'QUESTION:' at the beginning of the lines that represent questions still open, patches unsure to be accurate, etc. This way everyone can improve the page a little easier.

Paparazzi-dev packages

For Ubuntu users, you can install the following packages from standard repository:

=== Get Ocaml and libraries on you machine === (WORKS)

Ocaml, shrt for Objective Caml is the most popular variant of the Caml language. The Paparazzi GCS and tools are build in this language

  • ocaml, ocaml-camlimages-devel, ocaml-lablgtk2-devel, ocaml-xml-light-devel
$ sudo aptitude install ocaml libcamlimages-ocaml lablgtk2-ocaml libxml-light-ocaml


Lightweight and high performance web server, a single-tasking HTTP server.

$ sudo aptitude install boa

Gnome canvas Library

The GnomeCanvas is an engine for structured graphics that offers a rich imaging model, high performance rendering, and a powerful, high level API. This widget can be used for flexible display of graphics and for creating interactive user interface elements.

$ sudo aptitude install libgnomecanvas2-0 libgnomecanvas2-dev

USB Library

The libusb project aims to create a library for use by user level applications to access USB devices regardless of OS.

$ sudo aptitude install libusb-dev

Ocaml PCRE

This OCaml-library interfaces the PCRE (Perl-compatibility regular expressions) C library. it can be used for matching regular expressions which are written in Perl style.

$ sudo aptitude install libpcre-ocaml libpcre-ocaml-dev

Glade Library

Libglade is a library that performs a similar job to the C source output routines in the GLADE user interface builder. Whereas GLADE's output routines create C source code that must be compiled, libglade builds the interface from an XML file (GLADE's save format) at runtime. This can allow modifying the user interface without recompiling.

$ sudo aptitude install libglade2-0 libglade2-dev

Make sure that the following are also installed, but most of the time the are already on your system



GNU Make is an utility which controls the generation of executables and other target files of a program from the program's source files.

$ sudo aptitude install make

subversion client

Subversion, also known as svn, is a version control system. Version control systems allow many individuals to collaborate on the paparazzi source code. This is needed to retreive the latest sourcede from various packages and Paparazzi itself

$ sudo aptitude install subversion


A command-line driven interactive plotting program. Unknow if it is used

$ sudo aptitude install gnuplot


ImageMagick is a software suite to create, edit, and compose bitmap images. It can read, convert and write images in a variety of formats. Use ImageMagick to translate, flip, mirror, rotate, scale, shear and transform images, adjust image colors, apply various special effects, or draw text, lines, polygons, ellipses and Bézier curves. This pacage is needed for ?

$ sudo aptitude install imagemagick


Maybe all of this if you have an older OS distribution...

$ sudo aptitude install build-essential libgmp3-dev libmpfr-dev libx11-6 libx11-dev texinfo flex bison libncurses5 libncurses5-dbg libncurses5-dev libncursesw5 libncursesw5-dbg libncursesw5-dev zlibc 


!!! Newlib Newlib library built for ARM targets

Newlib is a C library intended for use on embedded systems. It is a conglomeration of several library parts, all under free software licenses that make them easily usable on embedded products.

About ivy-c, ivy-c-dev, ivy-ocaml and ivy-python packages. The rest of the software on which paparazzi-dev depends can be found in the ubuntu repositories for Lucid. If you have a distribution different from Ubuntu which doesn't satisfy any other dependency and have instructions about compiling it, packaging it, feel free to add any reference on howto on this wikipage.

Ivy-python: The ivy-python package is architecture independent, so it can be downloaded from the Ubuntu or Debian paparazzi repository, at [| [1]]. There you can find also the .tar.gz source package for it...

We try to download it from the official source repository


!!!! About Ivy versions

You can find the Ivy software bus homepage at There you can find documentation, svn repository location, etc.

If you take a look to the files at you'll see two different version numbers for ivy-c packages, and 3 for ivy-ocaml packages:

If you take a look to the control files of each of those ivy-ocaml packages (you can do it downloading the package and then dpkg --info PACKAGE_DOWNLOADED from the command line. See the line starting with 'Depends:') you'll see all of them tell to be compatible with ivy-c versions >= 3.8.

However my experience with ivy-ocaml_1.1-7 (the only one for which source code is provided) is that it is not compatible with ivy-c 3.11.4. The civyloop.c source file in the ivy-ocaml_1.1-7 package makes use of the IvyMainLoop function (defined in the ivy-c package) in the following way:

value ivy_mainLoop(value unit)
  IvyMainLoop (NULL, NULL);
  return Val_unit;

Definitions for the IvyMainLoop function in the ivy-c package are as follows. For 3.8:

extern void IvyMainLoop(void(*BeforeSelect)(void),void(*AfterSelect)(void) );

And for 3.11:

extern void IvyMainLoop(void);

So 3.8 version of that function has 2 arguments and 3.11 has no arguments at all. So we've to use 3.8 version. We'll get an error about 'too much arguments for IvyMainLoop' if we try to compile ivy-ocaml_1.1-7 with ivy-c_3.11.4-1.

But there's no source for ivy-c_3.8.1-1 in the paparazzi repository, where did i get it from? From the ivy-c svn repository, the svn command is the following:

svn co ivy-c_3.8.1

NOTE: Don't try to get ivy-ocaml too from the main ivy svn repository at It's main developer Pascal Brisset told me to use that ivy-ocaml_1.1-7.tar.gz file in the paparazzi repository instead. Svn repository for ivy-ocaml seems unused.

So we'll compile ivy-c_3.8.1 coming from the main ivy-c svn repository, and ivy-ocaml_1.1-7.tar.gz in the paparazzi repository (link above).

QUESTION: Where do i find sources (tar.gz) for ivy-ocaml_1.1 revisions 8 and 9??

QUESTION: Wouldn't it be better to change ivy-ocaml_1.1-7 control file to depend strictly on ivy-c 3.8 version?


!!!! Ivy-c (3.8.1)

As told above, source packages for this version of ivy-c can be downloaded with the following command (command line):

svn co ivy-c_3.8.1


!!!!! Compilation

To compile it you've just enter the src directory and type make, then make install as usual:

cd ivy-c_3.8.1/src
sudo make install

This will compile the sources and install header files, libraries and the ivyprobe program under /usr/local on your system.


!!!!! Debian packages

The source we downloaded above is debianized. For 32bit systems you just need to:

cd ivy-c_3.8.1
dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot -uc -us

And done. You'll get your .deb packages in the directory containing ivy-c_3.8.1 (up one level).

For 64bit systems there's a problem: The Makefile at src/Makefile sets the relative path for the target libraries in the variable LIB. This is set to 'lib' or 'lib64', this last for 64bit systems. However, if you take a look at those debian/ivy-c.dirs and debian/ivy-c.install files there's no files being installed for usr/lib64 or usr/X11R6/lib64 (just usr/lib and usr/X11R6/lib libraries are installed in the debian package).

We'll modify debian/rules to override the LIB environment variable when calling make to equal 'lib' always (even if your system is a 64bit one, /usr/lib64 will be just a symbolic link to /usr/lib). Just change the line (debian/rules, remember):

cd src && $(MAKE) install DESTDIR=$(CURDIR)/debian/tmp PREFIX=/usr


cd src && $(MAKE) install DESTDIR=$(CURDIR)/debian/tmp PREFIX=/usr LIB=/lib

And done, now you can run dpkg-buildpackage as usual.

You can find the sources for 3.8 already properly debianized for 64bit systems by me at There you can find the .deb packages for ivy-c and ivy-dev (amd64) too. I've changed the debian/changelog file too...


!!!! Ivy-ocaml (1.1-7)


!!!!! Compilation

That doesn't work on 64bit systems, if you just run 'make':

/usr/bin/ld: civyloop.o: relocation R_X86_64_32 against `timer_cb' can not be used when making a shared object; recompile with -fPIC

That's solved by just editing the Makefile. Change the line:

        $(CC) -Wall -c $(OCAMLINC) $(GLIBINC) $<


       $(CC) -Wall -c -fPIC $(OCAMLINC) $(GLIBINC) $<

And done.

The following section (debian packaging) does the same but distributing the change as a dpatch to the sources instead editing the Makefile. This way we don't modify the sources, but just distribute a patch which can be integrated in debian/rules or used by its own (read dpatch manual page, man dpatch).


!!!!! Debian packages

As told above, all we are going to do here is to distribute that change in the Makefile as a dpatch, and integrate the dpatch system into debian/rules. I'll not explain in depth how dpatch works, you can read for an introduction and then read the dpatch manual page (man dpatch).

Open debian/rules for editing and add, at the first line of the file (after the comments at the beginning), the following:

# Include dpatch stuff.
include /usr/share/dpatch/dpatch.make

That will include default dpatch rules for Makefiles, like 'patch', 'unpatch' and so.

Then edit the 'build' and 'clean' rules in debian/rules to depend on 'patch' and 'unpatch'. That means, replace the line:

build: build-stamp


build: patch build-stamp

And the line:



clean: unpatch

And done. This will make dpkg-buildpackage to apply the patches listed in debian/patches/00list before building, and deapply it on cleaning.

Now we've got to add our patch to debian/patches and list it in debian/patches/00list.amd64 (which lists patches being applied only for amd64 targets). For this run from the command line (you must be in the ivy-ocaml sources root dir!):

dpatch-edit-patch 01_ccfpic.dpatch

That will put you on a shell where you can edit all files you need. Just edit the Makefile as told above in Compiling and then type exit in that shell. After exiting a dpatch file will appear under debian/patches directory, named 01_ccfpic.dpatch.

Finally we've got to list that patch in a file called debian/patches/00list.amd64. Open that file for editing and add one single line saying:


And now you can run dpkg-buildpackage to generate your deb packages. You can find mine (amd64), and modified sources (dpatch modifications described here, changelog file) in

NOTE: This solution is to avoid modifying the original sources. A proper patch for the original sources would be one that checks if the system is a 64bit system, and if so set FPIC env variable, the following code at the begining of the Makefile would be ok (taken from ivy-c Makefile):

PERHAPS64�:= $(shell uname -m | perl -ne "print /64/�? '64'�: ;")
ifeq ($(PERHAPS64), "64")

And then let the rule to compile all .c and .o files be like the following:

        $(CC) -Wall -c $(FPIC) $(OCAMLINC) $(GLIBINC) $<


!!! Paparazzi-arm7 packages

After going on please notice i didn't tested the cross-compiler below (toolchain). I need to test all of this, only built them just to make paparazzi-bin compile.


!!!! Toolchain (binutils, gcc, newlib)


!!!!! About gcc versions

The following considerations must be taken into account:


  • I don't know if this affects (know nothing about arm7 actually), but there's a bug on gcc 3 arm7 cross-compilers described at
  • Paparazzi-bin build process (making deb package) compiles some files with the cross compiler, and the switch -mapcs-32. That switch is deprecated in gcc version 4, so if we want to make a compiler that make the paparazzi-bin package compile, we need to use a gcc version 3 compiler.
  • For 64bit systems version 4 compilers for arm can be downloaded from the [| gnuarm] project. As told above, they don't support the -mapcs-32 switch. Version 3 compilers from gnuarm project doesn't have that switch enabled too.

I'm sure there are tons of sites where you can download an arm7 cross-compiler which works well with that LPC2148 device. But my goal here is to build one that can after be used to build the paparazzi-bin deb package, so there's a need for that -mapcs-32 switch. Based on this, i decided to make the same versions as in the paparazzi debian repository, that's:

  • GCC version 3.4.4.
  • Binutils version 2.16.1.
  • Newlib version 1.13.

QUESTION: Does that bug affect? QUESTION: Is that -mapcs-32 switch needed in the paparazzi build process (Makefiles under sw/airborne/arm7 directory)? I've readed that -mapcs-26 and -mapcs-32 are deprecated, and that apcs-32 is now the default. Because i do not have any idea about what this all means, it's possible that i'm wrong. Can anybody confirm or refute this?


!!!!! Toolchain compilation

I've followed the general instructions found at, but modifing the t-arm-elf file. I reproduce all the steps below:

First of all you've got to download some dependencies:

apt-get install flex bison libgmp3-dev libmpfr-dev autoconf texinfo build-essential

IMPORTANT: In order to compile a gcc-3.4 cross-compiler we need a version 3 gcc native compiler in our system. Compilation will fail if you use a version 4 compiler. In ubuntu karmic there's no gcc-3 versions, so we need to download and install the following packages in our system (install it in the order specified, links below are for amd64):

Now we need to be sure our 3.4 compiler will be used to compile the cross-compiler instead the version 4 system default:

sudo rm /usr/bin/gcc
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/gcc-3.4 /usr/bin/gcc

We will undo this once finished.

QUESTION: Does anyone know how to specify the compiler to use instead of this dirty thing?

Now we download gcc, binuitils and newlib, which can be found at:

Now we just follow the instructions given at with two observations:

  • IMPORTANT: The t-arm-elf used there don't support the -mapcs-32 switch, change it by mine's at
  • IMPORTANT: The configure script for gcc must be run with sudo (or as root), because it copies some of the newlib headers to /usr/local!!!!

If you download the versions above, and follow the instructions at that link being sure you follow my observations you are done.

Now, remember to undo that symlink:

sudo rm /usr/bin/gcc
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/gcc-4.4 /usr/bin/gcc # Change 4.4 by your most recent gcc compiler, see ls -l /usr/bin/gcc-*

QUESTION: Better build instructions? More accurate t-arm-ef file? Can anybody test the compiler (i'll do as soon as i can).


!!!!! Debian packages

No debian packages for gcc, binutils or newlib were made, because as i told i'm not sure the way i compiled it all is correct. I don't know exactly how may i do to package such a complex package as a cross-compiler is...

QUESTION: Has Anybody got any link on packaging cross-compilers on debian (making deb packages)? QUESTION: Can anybody provide the debianized sources of that compiler in the paparazzi repository? That will tell me how to compile and package it all at once!


!!!! lpc21isp

The lpc21isp project is hosted on sourceforge. You can find the source packages at

Get the SVN version via

$ svn co lpc21

To compile and install

$ make clean
$ make 
$ sudo make install


!!!!! Compilation


sudo make install

Would work.


!!!!! Debian packages

I've debianized the sources running dh_make (single binary package, after dh_make i removed unecessary files from the debian directory). Then i simply ran:

dpkg-buildpackage -r fakeroot -uc -us

You can get the debianized source package, as well as the deb packages from


!!! Paparazzi-bin package

The source code compiled below was obtained from the svn trunk:

svn co svn:// paparazzi3

The revision obtained was r4909.

NOTE: The deb package generated has some problems (see below). The compilated non-packaged version works well. You must note too that some software in the deb package were compiled with the untested arm7 toolchain in the previous section, so it must not be used until that is properly tested.


!!!! Compilation

If you enter the sources directory and simply run make you will get the following error in an amd64 system:

cd sw/ground_segment/multimon; make PAPARAZZI_SRC=/home/roi/Codigo/paparazzi-dev/lenny_versions/paparazzi/temp PAPARAZZI_HOME=/home/roi/Codigo/paparazzi-dev/lenny_versions/paparazzi/temp
CC hdlc.c
hdlc.c:1: error: CPU you selected does not support x86-64 instruction set

This is because the code in sw/ground_segment/multimon/filter-i386.h which contains optimizations for some functions gets included and it doesn't work on amd64. filter.h says that filter-i386.h gets included if:

#ifdef ARCH_I386
#include "filter-i386.h"
#endif /* ARCH_I386 */

If we take a look to the Makefile (sw/ground_segment/multimon/Makefile):

CFLAGS          =-Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -I/usr/X11R6/include -I `ocamlc -where`
ifeq ($(DEBUG),y)
CFLAGS          +=-g -O -march=i486 -falign-loops=2 -falign-jumps=2 \
                 -falign-functions=2 -DARCH_I386
CFLAGS          +=-O3 -march=i486 -falign-loops=2 -falign-jumps=2 \
                 -falign-functions=2 -DARCH_I386

We'll have to change it to not define ARCH_I386, not optimize for i486 and add -fPIC. So we need to leave the above lines like:

CFLAGS          =-Wall -fPIC -Wstrict-prototypes -I/usr/X11R6/include -I `ocamlc -where`
ifeq ($(DEBUG),y)
CFLAGS          +=-g -O -falign-loops=2 -falign-jumps=2 \
CFLAGS          +=-O3 -falign-loops=2 -falign-jumps=2 \

Note that leaving the sources like this won't apply the optimizations if now you take the modified source and compile it in a 32bit system... Once my paparazzi-bin deb package (see below) works well i'll provide better patches for all the modifications explained here.

Now it compiles ok. I run ./paparazzi and test it with a simulation and everything seems fine.


!!!! Debian packages

The package generated here don't fully work (read at the end to see what fails), so don't use it but for testing purposes. The compiled sources compiled like above works well.

First of all, don't simply run dpkg-buildpackage, there's a Makefile rule instead! Just run:

make deb

With the revision i downloaded i get the following error:

install -o root -m 644 var/maps/trtqtttqtsrrtstq*.jpg var/maps/trtqtttqtsrrttsr*.jpg /home/roi/Codigo/paparazzi-dev/lenny_versions/paparazzi/temp/debian/paparazzi-bin/usr/share/paparazzi/data/maps
install: no se puede efectuar `stat' sobre �var/maps/trtqtttqtsrrtstq*.jpg�: No existe el fichero � directorio
install: no se puede efectuar `stat' sobre �var/maps/trtqtttqtsrrttsr*.jpg�: No existe el fichero � directorio
make[3]: *** [install_data] Error 1

It seems that there's a map trying to be installed that cannot be found in the sources. Just remove that jpg from the Makefile.install file, that's remove line 22 of Makefile.install:

$(INSTALLDATA) var/maps/trtqtttqtsrrtstq*.jpg var/maps/trtqtttqtsrrttsr*.jpg $(DESTDIR)/data/maps

QUESTION: Where am i supposed to get that map file from? Or does that line from Makefile.install need to be removed from the repository?

If now we run make deb again, the error is now:

dpkg-gencontrol: error: current host architecture 'amd64' does not appear in package's architecture list (i386)

That's because debian/control says it's a i386 only package. We've got to edit the control file, in my case i did:

cd debian
cp control.lenny control.karmic
cp changelog.lenny changelog.karmic

Then i edited debian/control.karmic and changed the line saying Architecture: i386 by Architecture: any. Now i run:

make DISTRO="karmic" deb

(See deb rule in the makefile to see how the DISTRO env variable is used).

Now it compiles properly. I'm going up one level and install that paparazzi-bin deb package but it fails:

cd ..
sudo dpkg --install paparazzi-bin_3.10-2_amd64.deb
Configurando paparazzi-bin (3.2-10) ...
File "_none_", line 1, characters 0-1:
Error: Error while linking kml.cmo:
Reference to undefined global `Server_globals'

So the postinst script is failing. It's located in debian/paparazzi-bin.postinst. Taking a look at that file one can see that all it does is to enter some directories and compile ocaml binaries. Even more, if one takes a look at those directories one can see that that binaries were compiled in the build process so:

QUESTION: Why aren't those binaries just being installed as usual? Is there any reason or simply there were problems trying to make them installed in the deb package?

I fixed it comparing the source dirs Makefiles with the compilation commands in the postinst file. I one compares between them for each directory in the postinst, it can be seen that there are some missing cma and/or cmo files in some ocamlc commands. Putting down here every modification i made to the debian/paparazzi-bin.postinst file would become very large, so you can simply download my modified sources [| here] and diff it against the original sources.

Now it compiles, so i go up one directory, install it again and test:

cd ..
sudo dpkg --purge paparazzi-bin
sudo dpkg --install paparazzi-bin_3.10-2_amd64.deb

And everything goes ok. If i now run paparazzi from the command line it starts properly but says:

mv: cannot stat `/home/roi/paparazzi/data/maps/trtqtttqtsrrt*.jpg': No such file or directory

You can edit the in the sources, eliminate the reference to that map file and reinstall and that disappears. Same QUESTION as above regarding to that map file: Where can i find that?

There's a problem that still persists. If i now run paparazzi (with my $HOME/paparazzi dir empty!) it fails to run a simulation, the error is the following:

BUILD /home/roi/paparazzi/var/MJ5/airframe.h
make[1]: *** No rule to make target `/home/roi/paparazzi/conf/modules/*.xml', needed by `/home/roi/paparazzi/var/MJ5/modules.h'.  Stop.
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/share/paparazzi'
make: *** [ac_h] Error 2
make: Leaving directory `/usr/share/paparazzi'

Inspecting my /home/roi/paparazzi directory and comparing to /usr/share/paparazzi i can see that not all files where copied when paparazzi was first run. The curious thing is that if i run ./paparazzi from the sources dir instead executing the installed one (/usr/bin) everything works ok (PAPARAZZI_SRC is taken as PAPARAZZI_HOME this way)...

QUESTION: Any ideas on why? I'm sure i can solve it by myself, but if anybody knows...

OK Set the UDev rules.d

OK Get the Paparazzi source via svn ;) retrieving works, compile ends with

    File "pprz.mli", line 149, characters 78-89:
    Error: Unbound type constructor Ivy.binding
  of course, since IVY is not yet installed...
      • CHALLENGING and NOT yet done ***
  • Arm tools

(No cleu yet whre and how to get the latest working versions)

   * arm-gp2x-linux-gcc.x
   * arm-gp2x-linux-binutils.x
  • Get ivy-c and ivy-c-dev on your system
 Via svn co  (At the moment I still could not compile, under investigation)
  • Get ivy-ocam on your system
 Via: svn co
 I've read somwhere, but to not agree with the comment, since it just means the makefile must be improved, anyhow just as a reminder for me
 "Is this so:ivy-ocaml (WARNING: debian and fedora have different path for ocaml (/usr/lib/ocaml/<version> vs.
  /usr/lib/ocaml), so you need to move by hand the files in /usr/lib/ocaml/<version> to /usr/lib/ocaml)"

Useful links

Text below based on text from


UNSORTED TEXT BELOW, need page integration


  1. !/bin/sh
  2. Based on a script by Uwe Hermann, released as public domain.

TARGET=arm-elf # Or: TARGET=arm-none-eabi PREFIX=/tmp/arm-cortex-toolchain # Install location of your final toolchain PARALLEL="-j 2" # Or: PARALLEL=""

BINUTILS=binutils-2.20.1 GCC=gcc-4.4.4 NEWLIB=newlib-1.18.0 GDB=gdb-7.1

export PATH="$PATH:$PREFIX/bin"

mkdir build

wget -c$BINUTILS.tar.bz2 tar xfvj $BINUTILS.tar.bz2 cd build ../$BINUTILS/configure --target=$TARGET --prefix=$PREFIX --enable-interwork --enable-multilib --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --disable-nls make $PARALLEL make install cd .. rm -rf build/* $BINUTILS $BINUTILS.tar.bz2

wget -c$GCC/$GCC.tar.bz2 tar xfvj $GCC.tar.bz2 cd build ../$GCC/configure --target=$TARGET --prefix=$PREFIX --enable-interwork --enable-multilib --enable-languages="c" --with-newlib --without-headers --disable-shared --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld make $PARALLEL all-gcc make install-gcc cd .. rm -rf build/* $GCC.tar.bz2

wget -c$NEWLIB.tar.gz tar xfvz $NEWLIB.tar.gz cd build ../$NEWLIB/configure --target=$TARGET --prefix=$PREFIX --enable-interwork --enable-multilib --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --disable-nls make $PARALLEL make install cd .. rm -rf build/* $NEWLIB $NEWLIB.tar.gz

  1. Yes, you need to build gcc again!

cd build ../$GCC/configure --target=$TARGET --prefix=$PREFIX --enable-interwork --enable-multilib --enable-languages="c,c++" --with-newlib --disable-shared --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld make $PARALLEL make install cd .. rm -rf build/* $GCC

wget -c$GDB.tar.bz2 tar xfvj $GDB.tar.bz2 cd build ../$GDB/configure --target=$TARGET --prefix=$PREFIX --enable-interwork --enable-multilib make $PARALLEL make install cd .. rm -rf build $GDB $GDB.tar.bz2

All flags

"-mapcs-32" is only available with very old tool chain versions e.g. GCC-3.3.x. More recent tool chains will either require "-mabi=apcs-gnu" (non-EABI-compliant) or "-mabi=aapcs-linux" (EABI-compliant).

!!! The depriciated -mapcs-32 Flag

"-mapcs-32" is only available with very old tool chain versions e.g. GCC-3.3.x. More recent tool chains will either require "-mabi=apcs-gnu" (non-EABI-compliant) or "-mabi=aapcs-linux" (EABI-compliant).

the second error was fixed by changing -mapcs-32 with -Wa,-mapcs-32 this was done after reading following post

-mapcs-32 option generates code for a processor running with a 32-bit program counter and conforming to the function calling standards for the APCS 32-bit option If interested in what APCS is search on the web for ARM APCS.

the option -Wa,-mapcs-32 is doing the following

-Wa,option Pass option as an option to the assembler. If option contains commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas.

The gcc flag -mapcs-32 was deprecated since gcc-3.4.0 and finally removed in gcc-4.0.0 which unconditionally generates 32bit ARM code. You should not need to pass this flag to the assembler either but it might not hurt for backwards compatibility, so we left it.