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DFU (Device Firmware Upgrade) is the standard method to upload new code to a STM32 MCU via USB.

There are two different DFU bootloader which require different software:

  • custom Luftboot/KroozSD bootloader which uses stm32_mem.py script
  • native (embedded in ROM) dfu bootloader which requires dfu-util

Custom bootloader (e.g.Luftboot,KroozSD)

This bootloader must be upload first, so paparazzi center can use stm32_mem.py to upload code to the MCU.
This bootloader is available for LisaM/Lia (Luftboot) and Krooz/kroozSD (KroozSD) boards.

Airframe configuration

To use custom DFU bootloader via USB as default:


stm32_mem.py will be used to upload the code.
To get a list of possible options, run:

sw/tools/dfu/stm32_mem.py --help

Native DFU bootloader (embedded in ROM)

STM32F4 MCUs have a bootloader already embedded in the ROM.
The MCU will not go automatically in DFU mode.
To trigger DFU mode, connect pin BOOT0 with 3V (if it dowsn't work also connect BOOT1 with GND), Reset MCU, disconnect BOOT0 (and BOOT1).

For further information, look at the STM's Application note AN2606

Airframe configuration

To use ROM based DFU via USB as default:

Needed software

dfu-util packet is needed for this bootloader.
Present in the current Ubuntu and Debian repo:

sudo apt-get install dfu-util

More information about dfu-util can be found at their Homepage http://dfu-util.gnumonks.org


You e.g. get the message can't find STM32 (autopilot) device.

  • Check if your device is recognized by the kernel:
    • e.g. for STM32 boards:
      lsusb -v -d 1d50:600f
      should print something like
Bus 003 Device 005: ID 1d50:600f OpenMoko, Inc. 
Device Descriptor:
  bLength                18
  bDescriptorType         1
  bcdUSB               2.00
  bDeviceClass            0 (Defined at Interface level)
  bDeviceSubClass         0 
  bDeviceProtocol         0 
  bMaxPacketSize0        64
  idVendor           0x1d50 OpenMoko, Inc.
  idProduct          0x600f 
  bcdDevice            1.00
  iManufacturer           1 1 BIT SQUARED
  iProduct                2 Lisa/M V2.1 (Upgrade) V1.1
  iSerial                 3 LM21031 36311743414D303731FFD305
  bNumConfigurations      1
  Configuration Descriptor:
    bLength                 9
    bDescriptorType         2
    wTotalLength           27
    bNumInterfaces          1
    bConfigurationValue     1
    iConfiguration          0 
    bmAttributes         0xc0
      Self Powered
    MaxPower              100mA
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        0
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           0
      bInterfaceClass       254 Application Specific Interface
      bInterfaceSubClass      1 Device Firmware Update
      bInterfaceProtocol      2 
      iInterface              4 @Internal Flash   /0x08000000/4*002Ka,124*002Kg
      Device Firmware Upgrade Interface Descriptor:
        bLength                             9
        bDescriptorType                    33
        bmAttributes                        9
          Will Detach
          Manifestation Intolerant
          Upload Unsupported
          Download Supported
        wDetachTimeout                    255 milliseconds
        wTransferSize                    2048 bytes
        bcdDFUVersion                   1.1a
Device Status:     0x0000
  (Bus Powered)
  • If you can see your device but still don't have access:
    • Check your Udev rules are up-to-date.
    • Check if the device is assigned to the plugdev group (via Udev rules) and you are a member of that group.